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Pasts persist in their ineradicable potential to indeterminately matter in the present, an excess that sets into motion the production of new histories and futurities.
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CHRONOLOGY
التسلسل الزمني

2011

THE REVOLUTION

January 25th, 2011

The Revolution Begins: Responding to popular calls for protests, thousands of people come out onto the streets and eventually congregate together in Tahrir square, setting into motion the Egyptian revolution. Inspired by the uprising in nearby Tunisia, the protests were scheduled on "National Police Day" and were labeled by organizers as the "Day of Anger" in protest against police abuses and emergency laws that had been in place for decades under Egypt's dictator Hosni Mubarak.

January 27th, 2011

The government cuts off all of Egypt's internet connections in anticipation of larger planned protests for Friday, January 28th, leading to speculation that a violent crackdown is imminent. Large street fighting continues to take place between demonstrators and police across Egypt, and hundreds are arrested in Cairo.

January 28th, 2011

The Day of Rage: On a planned "Friday of Rage," hundreds of thousands of protesters assemble across Egypt, and some ransack and burn down the ruling National Democratic Party headquarters just a few blocks off of Tahrir square. Looting breaks out across Cairo, and large amounts of inmates are freed from prisons as the police withdraw from the streets. Military troops begin to be deployed to various areas of downtown and protesters call for them to join the revolution.

January 29th, 2011

The military is ordered to fire upon the demonstrators but refuses, and a country-wide curfew is declared but ignored. Protesters seize weapons from several police stations and then burn them down, while others attempt to storm the Ministry of Interior, leading to several protesters' deaths.

February 2nd, 2011

The Battle of the Camel: After protesters spend the night in Tahrir square, they are attacked by baltagiya and Mubarak supporters riding camels and horses. Molotov cocktails are also used against demonstrators in several areas of the city, and journalists are attacked. The army demands that people return home, but thousands remain in the square.

February 11th, 2011

Friday of Departure: In the midst of large demonstrations, protesters surround the presidential palace and the state television and radio station buildings, and the army mobilizes to defend the buildings from attacks. Hosni Mubarak resigns from the presidency and flees Cairo, and the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces (SCAF) comes to power.

2011-2012

SCAF RULE

February 13th, 2011

As part of what the SCAF calls the "transition to democracy," the constitution is suspended, the parliament is disbanded, and the army announces that there will be new elections in six months. Tahrir square is still occupied by protesters who paint graffiti, plant gardens, and play music.

October 9th, 2011

Maspero Demonstrations and Massacre: Predominantly Christian groups holding a sit-in in front of the Maspero television building in order to protest the destruction of a church are attacked by military forces with guns, rocks, and military vehicles. 28 protesters are killed and hundreds are injured while state television stations call on people to protect the military from the attacks of demonstrators.

November 19th, 2011

The Battle of Mohamed Mahmoud Street: Over the course of several days of conflict, dozens of protesters are killed and hundreds are injured in fights with security forces after demonstrators re-occupy Tahrir square. While the clashes take place along the length of Mohamed Mahmoud Street, much of downtown remains under the control of protesters, including Tahrir square.

December 16th, 2011

The Cabinet Clashes: A sit-in protesting the appointment of Prime Minister Kamal Al-Ghanzoury erupts into fights between police and protesters. Security forces, including plain clothes officers, throw rocks, glass, and molotov cocktails from rooftops onto protesters on Qasr al-Ainy street, resulting in several deaths and hundreds of injuries.

January 23rd, 2012

Newly elected members of Egypt's Peoples' Assembly meet for the first time and are granted powers to draft new legislation by the SCAF. The emergency laws that have governed Egypt for decades are lifted before anticipated protests on the 1st anniversary of the revolution.

January 25th, 2012

The 1st Anniversary of the Revolution: Chanting "Down With Military Rule," tens of thousands of protesters pour into Tahrir square to demonstrate against the SCAF and to remember the martyrs of the revolution. The day is absent of any large-scale street fighting, and thousands of prisoners are pardoned by the SCAF in an effort to relieve tensions.

February 1st, 2012

Port Said Soccer Massacre: A large clash between rival soccer fans results in 74 deaths and hundreds of injuries. The police are criticized following the massacre for not intervening and for keeping the stadium exit gates closed in what was perceived as retribution against Ultras that had taken part in the revolution.

June 13th, 2012

The judiciary dissolves Egypt's newly elected parliament in the lead up to the presidential elections, and the military is given arrest powers that make civilians eligible for trial by military courts. Demonstrations manifest in Tahrir square in opposition to what is perceived as the military attempting to sabotage the elections.

2012-2013

MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD RULE

June 24th, 2012

Mohamed Morsi of the Muslim Brotherhood-backed Freedom and Justice Party is elected president by a slight majority in a run off vote with the military-backed candidate Ahmed Shafik, marking the first time that Egypt has been under the rule of an Islamist political party.

July 12th, 2012

Mohamed Morsi reconvenes the Islamist-majority parliament that had been previously dissolved by the judiciary, creating early tensions between the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian army.

November 18th, 2012

After Mohamed Morsi attempts to establish a majority on the assembly that is responsible for drafting a new constitution, secular members of the assembly walk out in protest of Morsi and the Muslim Brotherhood, while various parties withdraw from the process.

November 22nd, 2012

Mohamed Morsi issues a declaration giving him extensive powers over the state until a new constitution is ratified. Large protests soon break out across Egypt, and Tahrir square is occupied again. Large clashes occur between security forces and protesters into the evening.

December 4th, 2012

Protesters march on the presidential palace, and are pushed away by tear gas and police. Some of the protesters manage to break through security forces' perimeters, causing Mohamed Morsi to briefly flee the palace.

January 25th, 2013

The 2nd Anniversary of the Revolution: On the second anniversary of the revolution, protesters march and fight with police in cities across Egypt in defiance of the military and the Muslim Brotherhood. Tahrir Square is occupied for the day.

February 1st, 2013

Protesters march on the presidential palace again throwing stones and molotov cocktails. Security forces and protesters engage in prolonged street battles outside of the palace for the day. Several protesters are killed and dozens are injured.

March 9th, 2013

After courts uphold controversial death sentences for soccer fans and sentence others to life imprisonment for their involvement in the Port Said Soccer Massacre, protesters clash with security forces on Qasr Al-Nil bridge near Tahrir square and three are killed.

June 30th, 2013

Following rising forms of repression against demonstrations, economic instability, and fuel shortages, large protesters fill Tahrir square and surround the presidential palace, calling for the removal of Mohamed Morsi from office.

July 3rd, 2013

The Coup: Hundreds of thousands of protesters fill Tahrir square and call for Mohamed Morsi to leave the government. After issuing Morsi an ultimatum to answer the demands of the people, the military removes him from the office of the presidency, and General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi of the SCAF comes to power.

2013-PRESENT

SISI'S RULE

July 24th, 2013

Sisi calls for mass demonstrations to give him the authority to clear the Muslim Brotherhood’s sit-ins across Cairo, and hundreds of thousands of protesters fill Tahrir square in support of him and the military.

August 14th, 2013

The Rabaa Massacre: Military and police forces clear Rabaa Al-Adawiya square of the Muslim Brotherhood's anticoup sit-in, killing an estimated 1,000 people with snipers, helicopters, bulldozers, and police.

January 25th, 2014

The 3rd Anniversary of the Revolution: Groups loyal to the recently arrested Morsi and others loyal to Sisi and the military fight one another in the streets, culminating in over 49 deaths and hundreds of injuries.

May 28th, 2014

Sisi is elected president of Egypt by a wide margin in what are widely seen as rigged elections.

January 24th, 2015

Security forces shoot and kill the socialist Shaimaa al-Sabbagh in downtown Cairo during a march that was memorializing the martyrs for the 4th anniversary of the revolution.

January 25th, 2015

The 4th Anniversary of the Revolution: Sisi deploys security forces across Cairo to quell the possible remanifestation of the assemblies, and the sporadic protests that come out onto the streets are fired upon and quickly dispersed.

December 29th, 2015

The popular Townhouse gallery is raided and closed by security forces as part of a larger wave of repression targeting cultural centers in the month prior to the 5th anniversary of the revolution.

January 25th, 2016

The 5th Anniversary of the Revolution: The square is occupied by military forces, and small pro-Sisi groups come to take photos with and give flowers to security forces. Small protests in Cairo's periphery are dispersed by security forces.





The Conditions of Possibility
شروط الإمكان

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